Perhaps someone can help me with this. I was reading about the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics and the higher probability for energy to transfer from a state of order to disorder. I naturally started to think about the Big Bang, a random chaotic event, and it occurred to me that such a chaotic event would create an initial disorder, which would have to combine into a more orderly state to form galaxies and clusters, etc. This seems to violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics. So I looked into galaxy formation being caused by gravitational attraction as matter expands outward which seems to be driving this clustering.
So I suppose my question is, does galaxy formation violate the 2nd law? Is the order of galaxies merely the appearance of order? Or... what am I missing?
PS- I am not a big bang advocate, I'm just trying to contemplate the evidence at hand.
Good question. Am not an advocate either, but this is what I have learnt in class :)
Let me share with you what astronomers are saying in regards to the 2nd law of thermodynamics. It’s quite a mystery for secular scientist when it comes to physics. Particularly, why does time move in a singular direction? Some physicist do believe that if you go against the 2nd law of thermodynamics, there is no hope.
Unfortunately there are others who believe that the Universe began in an ordered state. That is the Universe began its life from the collapse of a previous Universe. One thing in astronomy is that no theory can stand alone by itself. It will always need another theory/assumption to explain itself. The last time I read, astronomers were still calculating the probability of a universe being birth from a previous universe. They are relying on the Cosmic Microwave Background to give insights on this. Some of them believe that this is possible.
As for galaxy mergers, astronomers state that galaxies were formed via dissipating gravitational energy. That is gravitational energy and kinetic energy (shockwaves) are necessary in galaxy formation. As they are “open systems” and net entropy is said to have increased due to galaxy formation, it will not violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics. This is some of their explanation.
Let me know if you want a more detailed explanation :)
Sorry it's not galaxy merger but Galaxy Formation
It violates Linear Momentum in that at the point of this explosion those particles should go out in a straight line spreading further and further apart from one another. In the vacuum of space there is no friction, so what would cause these particles to slow down, let alone stop, taking on circular motions revolving around one another to create all these galaxies?
Initial fluctuations in the distribution of mass created regions with a slightly higher gravitational pull than other regions. As each particle moved toward the highest local center of gravity (during the deep time that's also included in the Big Bang Theory), the galaxies were formed. Since overall momentum was preserved (when one particle slowed down, another sped up), no laws were violated.
Furthermore, this "singularity" was supposedly rotating at a very high rate of speed before it started to expand and then violently exploded.
The Big Bang Theory says nothing about what existed and in what state before the Big Bang. According to the Theory, time itself began at the Big Bang, so to talk about "before" the Big Bang is nonsensical in the strictest sense. Additionally, the expansion wasn't of matter into space, but of space itself. Matter didn't fly off from the singularity to fill previously emptly space, but the singularity itself expanded to become the Universe.
But what we see are planets, moons and even galaxies rotating in opposite directions, they shouldn't be, they should all be rotating the same direction.
Again, as long as overall momentum is preserved, that doesn't matter.
Also, what we should see is a void at the point of the explosion and an outer rim of fast moving particles,again we don't see that.
According to the Theory, the Universe doesn't have edges or a center and the "point of the explosion" is actually the entire Universe.